06 Aug 2015

What is a Dedicated Server

A dedicated server may be a single computer in a network reserved for serving the requirements of the network. for instance, some networks need that one computer be put aside to manage communications between all the opposite computers. a dedicated server might even be a computer that manages printer resources. Note, however, that not all servers are dedicated. In some networks, it\’s doable for a computer to act as a server and perform alternative functions yet.
In the web hosting business, a dedicated server is usually a rented service. The user rents the server, software system and an internet connection from the web host.

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14 Jun 2015

Using Putty

Introduction

For Windows:
There are several programs available that work for SSH. One of the most popular and easiest to use is “Putty”.

Download :


Procedure

1- Launch Putty
2- Host Name (or IP adress)
Enter : example.com or the IP correspondent for your website or your_domain.tld

3- Check/Click on SSH
4- Click on the Open button

puttymain

5- Enter your logi
6- Press the Enter button on your keyboard.

puty-login

7- Enter your ftp password
8- Press the Enter button on your keyboard.

putty

9- You will see the user name authenticated in putty.

Useful commands:

  1. ls -l
  2. chmod 705

 

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14 Jun 2015

Ips Address

IPs Address at EIS

DESCRIPTION

An IP (Internet Protocol) is an identification number on the network to communicate between machines using the internet Protocol. we tend to currently have 2 IP address versions.

  • IPV4 (eg 1.2.3.4)
  • IPV6 (example: 2001: 41D0: 8: 97ce: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0000)

For each server you have the opportunity to have:

  • 1 address range IPVv6 a / 64 (depends upon locations)
  • 1 ipv4 address assigned to your server and possibility that your offer to get IPs failovers or blocks of IPs.

These IPs address is subject to many varieties of service and so the configuration are going to be done differently.


IPv4 configuration

As an alias

When you simply add your IP to a server for a domain for example. You will add your IP address failover as an alias of the main IP of your server.

For Virtualization

 

In bridge mode

When using virtual machines configured in bridge mode with IPv4, you would create a virtual mac for that IP address by following the guide DedieMac .This type of configuration therefore relates to virtual machines ESXi, Citrix Xen, Promox with selected vmbr0. Then for configuring the IPV4 on your virtual machine, you will need to follow the guide BridgeClient .

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14 Jun 2015

IPv4 and IPv6

Theory
Here are some pages on which you can get information about IPv6:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPv6
http://www.olympus-zone.net/page_1033_en_Blue.html

IPv6 at EIS

For some of our facilities, we have the following /32 subnet.

For the routing we use Cisco routers 6k (6509 SUP720 card with the native IPv6 packets to route).

Every customer with a dedicated server at (EIS) has a fixed IPv4, one or more IpFailover and 18,446,744,073,709,551,616 IPv6 addresses in IPv6 Supported Locations (ie a /64) are attached to the IPv4 server.

So you can with a dedicated server:

  1. Use multiple SSL certificates
  2. Several anonymous FTP operations
  3. Web-hosting service run (IP-based)
  4. A public VPN set up based on the dedicated server
    Etc. ..

Preparation

  • The server must be running with a IPv6 kernel. This kernel is available on every server at supported locations.
  • Find your own IPv6 address in your manager or in email you got at the time of service registration or contact support.

An IPv6 example

An IPv4:

213.186.35.9/24

IPv6 will be the following:

2001:41d0:1:209::/64

Here are examples from which you can configure IPv6 on your dedicated server:

2001:41d0:1:209::1/64
2001:41d0:1:209:FF:FF:FF:FF/64
2001:41d0:1:209:A::1:1/64
2001:41d0:1:209::1:B:F/64
2001:41d0:1:209:1:1:1:1/64

The following notations are the same:

2001:41d0:1:209::1:B:F/64
2001:41d0:1:209:0:1:B:F/64
2001:41D0:0001:0209:0000:0001:000B:0000F/64

But you can :: place only once.

An example ifconfig

Once you’ve switched the server to IPv6 kernel, after the reboot ifconfig already has IPv6 info:

adr inet6: fe80::2e0:4cff:fe99:88d0/64 Scope:Lien

This shows that IPv6 works on the network.

Route: IPv6 Gateway

The router (default gateway) for each IPv6 is always on IP: v:6:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF

For example:

The IPv6 server: 2001:41D0:1:46e::/64 to 2001:41D0:1:4 + 5x FF.
IPv6 Gateway: 2001:41D0:1:4FF:FF:FF:FF:FF

and

The IPv6 server: 2001:41d0:1:209::/64 to 2001:41d0:1:2 + 5x FF.
IPv6 Gateway: 2001:41d0:1:2FF:FF:FF:FF:FF

IPv6 Installation

To be used for all Linux distributions in the examples below, the server has IPv6, the IPv6 kernel and it is has the address .  A uname -a indicates that an IPv6 kernel, and the command shows us that ifconfig The Router IPv6 already have a local link.

Redhat, CentOS, Fedora

The dedicated server we are running configure with the IPv4: 213.186.35.9/24, this will lead to the following IPv6: 2001:41d0:1:209::/64.
The following examples are identical for Redhat 7.2, Fedora and CentOS.

ifconfig
eth0 Lien encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:E0:4C:99:88:D0
inet adr:213.186.35.9 Bcast:213.186.35.255 Masque:255.255.255.0
adr inet6: fe80::2e0:4cff:fe99:88d0/64 Scope:Lien

We do 2001:41D0:1:209::1/64 and 2001:41D0:1:209::5/64 Add to eth0 :

/sbin/ifconfig eth0 inet6 add 2001:41D0:1:209::1/64
/sbin/ifconfig eth0 inet6 add 2001:41D0:1:209::5/64

So IPv6 does not disappear at the next reboot it must be added in the configuration file of the eth0 interface. We will create a copy of the file and then edit it:

cp /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth.backup
pico /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0

Here are the contents of the file after the change. The red options were added:

DEVICE=eth0
BOOTPROTO=static
IPADDR=213.186.35.9
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
ONBOOT=yes
GATEWAY=213.186.35.254
IPV6INIT=yes
IPV6ADDR=”2001:41D0:1:209::5/64″
IPV6ADDR_SECONDARIES=”2001:41D0:1:209::5/64″

All of the following IPv6 must be located in the line IPV6ADDR_SECONDARIES
It has the file /etc/sysconfig/network edited this line and add NETWORKING_IPV6=yes

# This line commented out by System Configuration
NETWORKING=yes
HOSTNAME=ghost.eis.net
GATEWAY=0.0.0.0
NETWORKING_IPV6=yes

It must be restarted with /etc/init.d/network restart
Note: It is possible that Redhat displays an error: “modprobe: Can not open dependencies file …” You can ignore this, it does not affect the result.

ifconfig ?

ifconfig
eth0 Lien encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:E0:4C:99:88:D0
inet adr:213.186.35.9 Bcast:213.186.35.255 Masque:255.255.255.0
adr inet6: 2001:41d0:1:209::1/64 Scope:Global
adr inet6: 2001:41d0:1:209::5/64 Scope:Global
adr inet6: fe80::2e0:4cff:fe99:88d0/64 Scope:Lien

You may be able to ping the gateway but can not use your ipv6, in this case add a default route:

route -A inet6 add default gw votre.gateway.ipv6 dev eth0

For example:

route -A inet6 add default gw 2001:41d0:1:2FF:FF:FF:FF:FF dev eth0

 

Gentoo

The dedicated server we are running configure with the IPv4: 213.186.35.9/24, this will lead to the following IPv6: 2001:41d0:1:209::/64.
You need to get your IPv6 address in your manager and boot with a IPv6 kernel. The command ifconfig shows us that the router already have a local IPv6 link.

ifconfig
eth0 Lien encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:E0:4C:8D:73:4D
inet adr:213.186.40.86 Bcast:213.186.40.255 Masque:255.255.255.0
adr inet6: fe80::2e0:4cff:fe8d:734d/64 Scope:Lien

You must edit the file /etc/conf.d/net and simply add the IPv6 in () of interface eth0. Here are the contents of the file after the addition of IPv6. The changes are marked in red:

config_eth0=( “213.186.40.86 netmask 255.255.255.0”
“2001:41D0:1:756::1/64”
"2001:41D0:1:756::2/64" )
routes_eth0=( “default gw 213.186.40.254” )

We start the new interface:

/etc/init.d/net.eth0 restart

ifconfig ?

ifconfig
eth0 Lien encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:E0:4C:8D:73:4D
inet adr:213.186.40.86 Bcast:213.186.40.255 Masque:255.255.255.0
adr inet6: 2001:41d0:1:756::1/64 Scope:Global
adr inet6: 2001:41d0:1:756::2/64 Scope:Global
adr inet6: fe80::2e0:4cff:fe8d:734d/64 Scope:Lien

You may be able to ping the gateway but can not use your ipv6, in this case add a default route:

route -A inet6 add default gw votre.gateway.ipv6 dev eth0

For example:

route -A inet6 add default gw 2001:41d0:1:2FF:FF:FF:FF:FF dev eth0

Debian, Ubuntu

The dedicated server we are running configure with the IPv4: 213.186.35.9/24, this will lead to the following IPv6: 2001:41d0:1:209::/64.
You need to get your IPv6 address in your manager and boot with a IPv6 kernel. The command ifconfig shows us that the router already have a local IPv6 link.

eth0 Lien encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:11:11:6C:E3:93
inet adr:213.251.132.138 Bcast:213.251.132.255 Masque:255.255.255.0
adr inet6: fe80::211:11ff:fe6c:e393/64 Scope:Lien

It then has to file: /etc/network/interfaces be edited, then simply add the IPv6:

iface eth0 inet6 static
address 2001:41D0:1:218a::1
netmask 64

For each additional IPv6 adddress the following must be added to the end of the file:

post-up /sbin/ifconfig eth0 inet6 add 2001:41D0:1:218a::2/64
pre-down /sbin/ifconfig eth0 inet6 del 2001:41D0:1:218a::2/64

And next to it:

post-up /sbin/ifconfig eth0 inet6 add 2001:41D0:1:218a::4/64
pre-down /sbin/ifconfig eth0 inet6 del 2001:41D0:1:218a::4/64

ifconfig ?

ifconfig
eth0 Lien encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:11:11:6C:E3:93
inet adr:213.251.132.138 Bcast:213.251.132.255 Masque:255.255.255.0
adr inet6: 2001:41d0:1:218a::1/64 Scope:Global
adr inet6: 2001:41d0:1:218a::2/64 Scope:Global
adr inet6: 2001:41d0:1:218a::4/64 Scope:Global
adr inet6: fe80::211:11ff:fe6c:e393/64 Scope:Lien

You may be able to ping the gateway but can not use your ipv6, in this case add a default route:

route -A inet6 add default gw votre.gateway.ipv6 dev eth0

For example:

route -A inet6 add default gw 2001:41d0:1:2FF:FF:FF:FF:FF dev eth0

Free BSD

The dedicated server we are running configure with the IPv4: 213.186.35.9/24, this will lead to the following IPv6: 2001:41d0:1:209::/64. You need to get your IPv6 address in your manager and boot with a IPv6 kernel.
In this example, here is the r10 network interface. It is also possible that the interface in the ifconfig is registered as Vr0. In this case, you replace all r10 by Vr0.

We will begin with the following lines in /etc/sysctl.conf add:

net.inet6.ip6.accept_rtadv=1

And reboot:

/etc/rc.d/sysctl restart

To activate the “router advertisement” option. Afterwards it’s enough to add the IPv6 address manually:

ifconfig rl0 inet6 2001:41D0:1:756::/64

to obtain the information for “default_route”. The requested information is marked in red:

rtsol -d rl0
checking if rl0 is ready…
get_llflag() failed, anyway I’ll try
send RS on rl0, whose state is 2
received RA from fe80::2d0:3ff:fe75:e000 on rl0, state is 2
stop timer for rl0
there is no timer

All information for the configuration of /etc/rc.conf are here. So we will insert the following lines below in the file:

ipv6_enable=”YES”
ipv6_network_interface=”rl0″
ipv6_ifconfig_rl0=”2001:41D0:1:756::1 prefixlen 64″
ipv6_ifconfig_rl0_alias0=”2001:41D0:1:756::12 prefixlen 64

Each additional IPv6 is added as pv6_ifconfig_rl0_aliasX =.
We start again:

/etc/rc.d/network_ipv6 restart

ifconfig ?

rl0: flags=8843<up,broadcast,running,simplex,multicast> mtu 1500
inet6 fe80::2e0:4cff:fe89:2883%rl0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x1
inet 213.186.40.117 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 213.186.40.255
inet6 2001:41d0:1:756::1 prefixlen 64 duplicated
inet6 2001:41d0:1:756::12 prefixlen 64
inet6 2001:41d0:1:756::13 prefixlen 64
ether 00:e0:4c:89:28:83

Windows

You need to login in by TSE (Remote Desktop Connection) to connect to the server and then as follows:

Start > Control Panel > Network Connexion > Local Area Connection > Properties

Once on this page, you execute:

Install > Protocol > Add > Microsoft TCP/IP version 6 > OK

Then:

Start > Command Prompt

To enter this command:

netsh interface ipv6 add address “Local Area Connection” 2001:41d0:1:733::1

 

Verification

Ping6 Test

We ping6 to the router:

ping6 -c 4 2001:41d0:1:2FF:FF:FF:FF:FF
PING 2001:41d0:1:2FF:FF:FF:FF:FF(2001:41d0:1:2ff:ff:ff:ff:ff) from 2001:41d0:1:209::5 : 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 2001:41d0:1:2ff:ff:ff:ff:ff: icmp_seq=0 hops=64 time=127.977 msec
64 bytes from 2001:41d0:1:2ff:ff:ff:ff:ff: icmp_seq=1 hops=64 time=24.242 msec
64 bytes from 2001:41d0:1:2ff:ff:ff:ff:ff: icmp_seq=2 hops=64 time=205.934 msec
64 bytes from 2001:41d0:1:2ff:ff:ff:ff:ff: icmp_seq=3 hops=64 time=129.853 msec4 packets transmitted, 4 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max/mdev = 24.242/122.001/205.934/64.613 ms
Traceroute6 Test

Do traceroute6 to IPv6 DNS Servers by Afnic:

traceroute6 2001:660:3006:1::1:1
traceroute to 2001:660:3006:1

1:1 (2001:660:3006:1

1:1) from 2001:41d0:1:209::5, 30 hops max, 16 byte packets
1 2001:41d0:1:2ff:ff:ff:ff:ff (2001:41d0:1:2ff:ff:ff:ff:ff) 0.726 ms 0.508 ms *
2 * * *
3 renater.sfinx.tm.fr (2001:660:a100:2::1) 0.879 ms 0.787 ms 0.721 ms
4 afnic.sfinx.tm.fr (2001:660:a100:2::101) 1.13 ms 1.131 ms 1.099 ms
5 ns3.nic.fr (2001:660:3006:1::1:1) 0.933 ms 0.954 ms 0.922 ms

It is working.
There are websites that can offer a traceroute6 ping6 or tests online. You can use these function to check with the added IPs.

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12 Jun 2015

SSH on dedicated server

SSH Console.SSH is installed on every server. It ensures secure connection to the server and gives you full control over your machine.

SSH applications

for Windows
Putty (free):
http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html
SecureCRT (paid):
http://www.vandyke.com/products/securecrt/

for Mac
http://directory.google.com/Top/Computers/Security/Products_and_Tools/
Cryptography/SSH/Clients/Macintosh/?tc=1]
– Terminal is available with Mac OS X and is automatically installed.
http://pro.wanadoo.fr/chombier/MacSSH/SSH_info.html
http://sourceforge.net/projects/macssh/

for Linux
Openssh (free):http://www.openssh.org

First connection
To connect with the server via ssh you need to know:

– server’s IP or its name
– server’s root password

Example of connection with openssh :

$ ssh root@bmw
The authenticity of host ‘bmw (213.186.32.1)’ can’t be established.
RSA key fingerprint is a9:bb:55:35:86:4d:ca:81:7f:9e:2b:2c:79:10:96:3c.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added ‘bmw,213.186.32.1’ (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
Password:
$

During the connection your ssh application receives RSA key fingerprint, which is the server key. It is verified during every connection. If the key changes, you’ll be informed about it. It means that something has changed on your server, for example the server has been reinstalled, or ssh server has been reinstalled or you have connected to the wrong server.

During the first connection you should accept the key which will be registered in your ssh application.

Next step
You may consult the manual which describes operations in shell under bash۔

Update
If you update ssh on your server, don’t forget to enable telnet. Telnet is unsecured version of ssh and it doesn’t allow direct connection as root. However it is an option that allow your access to the server in case of unsuccessful ssh update. to check your version of ssh insert ssh -V.

# ssh -V
OpenSSH_3.7.1p2, SSH protocols 1.5/2.0, OpenSSL 0.9.6i engine Feb 19 2003
OpenSSH lower than 3.7.1p2 are vulnerable to hack attempts. We advise you to update your server.
Attention: Starting from 3.7.1p2 you should use UsePAM yes w /etc/ssh/sshd_config
If with this option ssh doesn’t restart, it means that you don’t have 3.7.1p2 version (update was unsuccessful).
Errors
If you have ssh version higher than 3.7, you may have problems with connection to your server if you use older version of ssh program for Windows. To avoid this problem, install the latest version of your application. If you use Putty, the connection should be done through SSH2. If you use SecureCRT, you need to configure primary authentication in “password”. This problem is not related to the server but concerns the ssh application.

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